Export of the Republic of Belarus
Export is one of the main priorities of Belorussian economy. Traditionally, exports account for more than half the Gross Domestic Product. That’s why it's the main source of sustainable economic growth of the country.
As Belarus advanced economically, a governmental system of encouraging and supporting exports was formed, building on international best practices. This system is constantly developing and improving. There are conditions for introducing new and effective mechanisms.
In the wake of the world financial downturn, the foreign trade of Belarus changed structurally. Today the country adopted a trade policy to increase the share of high-tech products in exports and diversify supplies to foreign markets.
The Republic of Belarus traditionally implements a multi-vector foreign trade policy, supports trade contacts with foreign countries, actively participates in international integration processes.
Major events that significantly affect the conditions of export activities are Belarus' participation in the Customs Union with Russia and Kazakhstan, the build-up of a unified economic zone and forthcoming accession to the WTO.
Export potential of Belarus
The structure of the Belarusian economy is export oriented. The share of export in the Gross Domestic Product exceeds 50 percent.
Export products of Belarus are diverse and include more than 1 000 articles. Among the major export commodities of Belarus are potash and nitrogen fertilizers, oil products, rolled steel, metal cord, trucks, tractors, chemical fibers and yarns, caprolactam, tires, furniture, refrigerators and freezers, wood products, clothing, shoes, dairy and meat products, sugar.
The country produces a wide range of high technology products with stable demand in foreign markets: agricultural machinery, buses and trams, road-building machinery, technical equipment, gas cookers, washing machines, microelectronics and optical devices.
Agricultural products have an important share in the Belarusian exports.
In 2011 exports of milk and dairy products reached USD 1.7 billion.
Belarus has opted for innovative development of the economy by increasing its high-tech capacity.
Exports of Lithuania
Export is key to the national economic growth. In January–November 2015, against January–November 2014, exports decreased by 5.7 per cent. The decrease in exports was influenced by a decrease in exports of petroleum products (12.6 per cent), ground vehicles (27.3 per cent), boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances, parts thereof (10 per cent). Mineral products excluded, exports of goods decreased by 4.4 per cent. Exports of goods of Lithuanian origin decreased by 3 per cent, mineral products excluded – increased by 2 per cent. Exports to Russia decreased by 39.2 per cent, of goods of Lithuanian origin – 48.8 per cent, which was conditioned by a decrease in exports of milk and dairy products (94.3 per cent), electrical machinery and equipment and parts thereof (83.5 per cent), ground vehicles (76.5 per cent); meat and edible meat offal was not exported.
Export promotion policy
Lithuania’s export promotion policy follows the principles set by the EU Common Commercial Policy.
Considering the production potential of the sector, development opportunities, orientation to higher value-added products or services, as well as their exports and the ability to respond quickly to global market trends, criteria which promote the development of exports were established.
Priority Lithuanian export development objectives:
- maintain our export position in foreign markets;
- penetration into new markets, especially in third countries;
- promote the export development of higher value-added goods and services.
Considering the market size and growth potential, active Lithuania’s business interest, favorable conditions for Lithuanian exporters, the geographical aspect, market demand compliance with the Lithuanian export opportunities and export trends, three equivalent priority export market groups were identified.
The Ministry of Economy of Lithuania and other state institutions along with the government agency Enterprise Lithuania implement the measures and projects seeking to promote entrepreneurship of the Lithuanian companies, increase their competitiveness, help Lithuanian companies penetrate to the international markets, as well as provide public services to businesses, especially SMEs to enhance competitiveness and promote the internationalization of business. Implementation of these measures is financed from the national budget and from the European Union’s structural funds.
Export promotion measures
The Export promotion measures should not be considered as granting of subsidies, financial aid or direct payments to exporters, which is a non-compliance with the EU and the WTO rules. Instead, it includes counselling-support in the domestic and export markets, assistance and support with regards to the participation in trade fairs, exporter and importer missions and international exhibitions as well as state-supported export guarantees.
Three major groups of the measures include:
- counselling-support, provided by the government agency „Enterprise Lithuania“ and the network of Commerce Attachés;
- the EU support intended to encourage enterprises to seek foreign partners more actively and increase sales in foreign markets (measure „New opportunities“ and others);
- the guarantees for export credit insurance, provided by the agency INVEGA
Latvia's main export market - and its traditional market - is the EU countries, of which the largest are Estonia and Lithuania, and only a relatively small portion is taken up by the CIS and other external countries. The proportion of Latvia's exports that are sent to emerging economies such as China and India is small. In order to further develop exports in the future, it is necessary to focus not only on the major Latvian export markets or the geographically close, large, and potentially growing markets, but also on markets that are interesting to Latvian entrepreneurs, as well as those markets in which a demand for potential supply from Latvia (in terms of market niches) has been experienced.
Economic development is currently undergoing a paradigm shift - the transition to a sustainable development model in which the main developmental driving force is exports, the ability to compete in internal and external product markets, and also the ability to be competitive in raising capital in order to increase Latvia’s productive potential.
Guidelines for promoting exports of Latvian goods and services and attracting foreign investments for the years 2013-2019.
The guidelines define the main goal of the export promotion policy, plus the principles and courses of action for the next seven years, setting out as the main task the promotion of a proportional increase in the high and medium-high technology industry in terms of Latvian exports. In order to be able to achieve the successful implementation of the guidelines, it is important to create a dynamic joint cooperation model for all sides that are involved, which should include both national and municipal institutions as well as the private sector and scientific institutions.
State-funded export support measures are implemented by the Investment and Development Agency of Latvia (IDAL). According to the needs of business people, those countries that are selected are ones in which export support measures are being implemented, along with selected export support measures, established regularity, an institutional framework, and financial support tools.